pleat is crisp parallel pleating that resembles the folds of an
A bandeau covers part of the head generally with a
base that is 3 or 4 inches wide and curves to the shape of the head and
then decorated usually with flowers.
Normally it is pinned to the head to hold it in place.
soft hat often made of felt or wool.
Berets have no brim and are generally worn at an angle on the
two cornered hat most recognized as Napoleonís hat.
Military officers often wore bicorns in the late 1700s and early
1800s. The broad brims
folded up in front and back to form a semi-circular shape and were often
pinned together with an ornament called a cockade.
or skimmers were popular menís summer hat from the late 19th
century through most of the first half of the 20th century.
The stiff straw hats had an angular design with flat top, low
crown with squared vertical lines and a short horizontal brim.
Generally the trim was a ribbon band.
Ladies hats adapted this design.
Bonnets provided the main headwear for women from
the 1700s to the 1860s.
Styles ranged from common cotton worn at home to elaborate brims and
decorations. Today hat
designs sometimes borrow the bonnet shape that covers the top and back
of the head with a brim that arches around the face.
bowler, also called a derby, is a hard felt hat with a rounded crown and
short rolled up brim. The
name comes from the family that first produced the hat and tradition
says the firm hat protected a manís head from low hanging limbs while on
horseback. Bowlers reached
their height of popularity in the late 1800s, but continued selling into
the 20th century where they can still be seen in the Searís
catalogs in the 1920s.
Breton was originally a sailor hat for men with a wide turned up brim.
As often happens, fashionable modifications adapted the style to
women. The fashionable
upbrim hats were popular in the thirties and continually come back in
style thanks to their attractive shape with turned up brim.
The name has fallen out of use and today up brims or kettles
refer to the shape.
is a decorative fabric sometimes used in hat making.
The fabric often has a silky sheen with ornamental patterns
dimensionally raised above the background as the pattern flows through
by stiff turned down brim that angles out.
Lampshades have this shape with a wider brim.
are soft pancake shaped hats with short bills, about the same as a
newsboy. The fabric caps
find roots in golf caps dating back to the late 1800s.
An exaggerated wide brim and low crown distinguish
cartwheel hats, popular in the 1940s and 1950s.
the crowns were generally flat and very low, differing from
todayís rounded crown swingers.
The brims generally had stiffer body that didnít droop.
classic western hat creased down the center and indented on both sides,
sometimes called a pinch-top. The
cattleman profile is squared on top with a slightly rolled brim.
wide brim hat with one side flipped up, often pinned with a cockade or
decorated with an ostrich plume, while the other side swoops down.
Originally a menís hat, the name comes from supporters of Charles
I in the English Civil War.
The dashing design, usually cocked to one side, developed into a
style for women and became a fashion statement in the early1920s with
the production of the movie, ďThe Three MusketeersĒ.
The spirited look of cavaliers is constantly resurfacing with
the flapper and the cloche best personify the 1920s.
The cloche was a tight fitting cap that was either brimless or
had a slightly flared brim and was often worn at eyebrow level.
The name derives from the French word for bell.
Any decoration was usually to one side for an asymmetrical effect
and the hats had a variety of looks created from felt, straw, or fabric.
Cocktail hats are more of a statement than a
particular style. They are often dramatic small hats worn at an angle on
top of the head to make a statement for cocktail parties.
One style is a miniature silk top hat accompanied with
decorations and worn on top of the head to one side.
derby hat is another name for the bowler hat described above.
Origin of the name, derby, comes from the predominance of this
hat worn by men attending the Epsom Derby.
Generally the felt hat has a firmness received from a coat of
shellac applied in the manufacturing process.
The well recognized derby, distinguished by rounded crown with
upturned brim, peaked in popularity in the late 1800s.
fedora was a necessary part of menís dress wear in 40s and 50s.
The hat began as a soft felt with pinch front and crease down the
top sporting a wide brim that flipped down in the front.
The name comes from an 1882 play called Fedora in which the
heroine was Princess Fedora. Variations like the C-crown and stingy brim
are also called fedoras as well as straws using these shapes..
hat has a round shape with vertical sides and flat crown with no brim.
The close fitting hat derives from a Turkish hat for men with a
tassel I the center, which has been adapted to a fashionable womenís
design without the tassel.
In 1775 Thomas Gainsboroughís painting, The Morning
Walk, followed by ďThe Duchess of DevonshireĒ a few years later gave his
name to the style of hats gracing the canvas.
Gainsboroughs were lavish wide brim hats lavishly decorated with
ostrich plumes and more.
The hats reappeared in the 18702 in scaled down versions.
The name has fallen out of popular use today.
are western style hats with an oval crown that has no pinch indentions.
The top is a C-crown with a sharply creased edge and the rolled
brim flattens in the front and back as opposed to a golfer that rolls
all the way around.
godfather is an American name for the Homburg hat derived from
Hollywood mafia films.
The stiff felt hat has a crease down the length and a brim that
turns up all the way around.
are straw hats with a shallow flat crown and straight wide brim
generally trimmed with grosgrain ribbon in color.
The hats worn by the Venice gondoliers that pole the gondolas
inspire the hat.
is often used for hat bands because of the simple and attractive
appearance of the ribbon. A
tight weave of satin or rayon delivers parallel ribbing in a fabric that
allows some stretch so can trim angled crowns of hats without gapping.
Halo hats have an upturned brim and worn back on
the head to create a semicircular halo effect around the face.
The headwearís popularity peak was the1930s and 40s, but the
uplifting style continues to resurface in millinery fashion.
headgear worn in battle inspires the name of close fitting rigid hats.
The bowl shaped hats are generally made of felts have the
appearance of cloches.
are a stiff felt hat with a top crease that runs lengthwise and a brim
that turns up al the way around.
The name springs from Edward VII visit to Homburg
Germany, returning with a hat of this
menís dress hat, often called a Godfather in the
US, has no indentions or pinch marks
fro grabbing hold.
is a lacey like hat trim with a wide weave creating lots of open space.
The trim has a stiffness that enables loops and bows to hold
Originally the trim was made from horse hair, mainly the tail, but today
cap is an American name for flat caps with s small brim that is hardly
visible beneath the downward sloping top of the hat.
The stiffened back stands higher creating the slope forward.
Todayís styles are a modification of
flat caps that have a long
history and provided the principal headwear of working men in the late
1800s and early 1900s. Once
the headwear of seniors, professors, and artists, today ivy caps are
enjoying renewed popularity thanks to fashion trends.
is fabric with complicated design often used in trimming hats. The name
actually comes from the person that invented the loom in 1801.
Brocade and damask are two of the complicated weaves made on the
loom and come under the name Jacquard.
hats have a high rounded crown and small bill inspired by caps used in
horse racing. Todayís
style, often made of velvet, is a trendy fashion statement especially in
winter hats. The first
jockey hats surfaced in the Directoire era of the French Revolution
(1995-1799) as bonnets with rounded crowns and medium sized bills that
tie under the chin.
Juliet caps are small caps, usually of soft
material, worn towards the back of the head.
Inspiration for this headwear that favored by
I comes from Romeo & Juliet.
A pointed front characterizes todayís designs of Juliet caps.
kepi is a military cap recognized as Civil War headwear.
The oval caps have a medium sized bill and the hats are higher in
the back causing the flat top to angle forward.
The style originated with the French military.
brim hats are womenís headwear with a rounded or flat crown and upturned
brim. The term is a modern
day name for up brim hats, which seem to enjoy more popularity than in
the past. Bretons are
examples of up brims that todayís terminology labels kettle brims.
have rounded or flat crowns with rather wide brims that roll down.
The elegant look is associated with the silver screen of the 50s
and 60s when the style enjoyed its greatest popularity.
The graceful shape continually returns to millinery fashion.
riders are a recent American modification of the Homburg (or Godfather)
with a lower crown and narrower rolled up brim. The hats are most
commonly made of felt with a grosgrain band, but also use other
materials like leather.
hats, shaped like army fatigue hats have been popular in recent years.
Cotton or blend hats provide summer wear and felt is used fro
Nap is a term that refers to the height of piling
in felt, fur, or fabric.
Netting on hats was very common before the 1960s.
The lace formed veils that covered the eyes or sometimes the face
and had designs like diamond dot that wee household words.
Today netting for veils finds few uses in womenís headwear
outside of bridal hats.
are soft caps with a puffy top and short bill.
The hats come in the flat cap family that has centuries of
history. But this
particular look takes its name from the paperboys that sold newspapers
on the street corners in the first half of the 20th century.
In recent years newsboys have been very popular with young adults
and the junior market because of celebritiesí preference for the style.
outback is an Australian inspired cowboy hat with an appearance
somewhere between a fedora and a pinch front cowboy hat.
The hats have a 3 to 4 inch brim that rolls slightly and flattens
in the front and back.
Outbacks are found in felt, straw, toyo, and leather.
The Pamela hat or bonnet has been lost to nearly
everyone except the vintage hat enthusiasts.
The attractive shape with low flat crown and wide flat brim that
dips in the front and back makes a stunning statement even today,
although the hat would most likely carry a different name. The 1840
novel called Pamela gives the hat its name because the main character
wears the style.
hats have a fine tight weave that provides a highly desirable quality in
headwear. The straw, workmanship, and source of the headwear determine
whether itís a Panama
rather than a particular shape.
The first thing most people learn about
hats is that they are made principally in
and not in Panama.
The fiber comes from the
Carludovica palmate plant,
called C. Palmate for short.
From planting to completed hat, the process employs large numbers
in producing quality menís hats considered among the finest in the
hats are widebrim hats that frame the face especially when worn back on
the head. The style and
name were popular in the 1940s and 50s.
While the style is still popular, terminology changes the name to
The pillbox is a small round brimless hat sometimes
worn with netting that was very popular in the 1950s.
Jacqueline Kennedy wore it to the inauguration in 1960 and it
became her signature look.
front refers to the indentions in the front of menís hats and cowboy
hats that allow a natural place to grasp the hat when putting it on or
taking it off. The fedora
is an example of a pinch front hat.
top denotes indentions along side the center crease at the top of a
manís hat. This allows a
convenient place to grasp the hat when donning or removing.
The best example is the cattleman.
A plume is an ornamental feather used to decorate a
hat, generally an ostrich feather.
is a synthetic fiber used to make womenís dress hats.
The synthetics provide excellent color and body that trims easily
for church hats.
originated in the mid 1800s as a ladies hat, but are recognized today as
a manís hat characterized by a flat crown and short brim turned up all
the way around. The top has
a sharply creased C-crown and the hats are generally a felt
construction. While we
associate pork pies with jazz, the hat has a colorful history as the
choice headwear of London street
vendors and the hat on the head of General Phil Sheridan when he rallied
his troops at the Battle of Cedar Creek.
is a straw used in hat making.
The natural brown color has a flexibility making it an excellent
straw for hat weaving.
The palm grows in tropical regions of Africa, South and Central
America, but mainly in
The fact that the straw does not easily crack when dried makes it
a popular material for both men and womenís hats.
are flower-like decorations made from fabric or straw to trim hats.
is a dark colored straw used in weaving hats and other products.
Unlike many other straws used that come from the palm family,
rush is a grassy plant and very plentiful in the Northern Hemisphere.
Generally inexpensive hats are made with this straw.
is a material used in hat making, especially ladies dress hats.
The material commonly used is synthetic rather than genuine
sinamay, which consists of twisting fibers of the abaca plant and silk.
craft the material and grow the abaca palm.
Sinamay used in hat making normally has an open weave.
Snoods are nets, sometimes crocheted, designed to
hold a womenís hair in the back off the neck.
As women entered the workforce during World War II, snoods
mushroomed in popularity as a practical way to keep hair out of the way
are a modern day term for wide brim hats usually with rounded crowns.
While the style remains popular, names for the shape change
throughout millinery history.
hats are tall rigid menís hats with a flat crown and small upturned
brim. The hats first
appeared in felt during the late 1700s as a riding hat for men.
Later silk top hats were introduced.
Top hats are still used fro formal affairs and state functions.
Toques are small hats with little or no brim.
The term has fallen out of popularity today.
The headwear can be soft or rigid with designs plain or
decorated. The chef hat is
actually a toque and hats as varied as knit stocking caps and Nancy
Reaganís hat for her husbandís inauguration fall in the toque
are three cornered hats with a low crown that were popular for men in
the 1700s. The brim folded
up on three sides creating the corners.
Military versions often had a cockade on one side.
Tulle is a lacey hat trim with a honeycomb like
pattern that takes it name from the city in
that specialized in knitting the fabric.
Originally introduced to hat design in the mid 1800s, today tulle
is made from silk, cotton, wool, or polyester.
Turbans are an Eastern headwear style with fabric
wrapped around a cap. The
hats frequently surface as womenís fashion, showing up during the
Directoire era of 1795 to 1799 and again when Napoleonís soldiers
brought turbans from Egypt. Turbans
returned to style several times in the 19th and 20th
centuries, but today there main use is headwear to cover hair loss after
are another name applied to the timeless look of rounded crown ladies
hat with a 3 to 5 inch straight brim that often has some sassy bounce.
The womenís headwear has experienced more name changes than style
changes over the last several decades.
1,000 Hats by Norma Shephard, 2006
Hats, A History of Fashion in Headwear by Hilda
Ladies Vintage Accessories by LaRee Johnson Bruton,
Vintage Hats & Bonnets by Susan Langley, 1998
Womenís Hats of the 20th Century by
Maureen Reilly & Mary Beth